Miami chief, Little Turtle, defeated St. Clair's troops in an ambush near the Wabash River. In 1802, St. Clair remarked the U.S. Congress had no power to interfere in the affairs of those in the Ohio Territory. A fresh regiment of infantry recruits and additional militiamen accompanied the original expeditionary regiment, but, when St. Clair reached the upper part of the Wabash River, his army was defeated by Little Turtle in a deadly ambush. On September 17, 1791, Major-General St. Clair headed north from Cincinnati to establish a fort in Indiana. Unfortunately the General was defeated and killed before St. Clair's arrival after the disastrous affair at Three Rivers. In 1791, St. Clair commanded the American forces in what was the United States's worst ever defeat by the Native Americans. St. Clair personally led a punitive expedition comprised of militia, and two Regular Army regiments. Arthur St. Clair was a Patriot. A Federalist, St. Clair hoped to see two states made of the Ohio Territory in order to increase Federalist power in Congress. In this video I take a look at The Battle Of The Wabash aka St.Clair's Defeat! St. Clair's defeat, also known as the Battle of the Wabash, the Battle of Wabash River or the Battle of a Thousand Slain, was a battle fought on November 4, 1791, in the Northwest Territory of the United States of America. Despite specific provisions in the Treaty of 1783 for the evacuation of its forts on the northwestern border, Britain had failed to yield these lucrative fur-trading posts. Arthur St. Clair was born in Thurso, Scotland on March 23, 1734 and died in Greensburg, Pennsylvania on August 31, 1818. Many biographers credit St. Clair with the strategy that led to Washington's capture of Princeton, New Jersey on January 3, 1777. He also stated the people of the territory "are no more bound by an act of Congress than we would be bound by an edict of the first consul of France." The Indian tribes in the Old Northwest, however, were not parties to this treaty and many of them, especially leaders such as Little Turtle and Blue Jacket, refuse… Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The St. Clair Expedition of 1791 or Defeat of the U.S. Army against the Miami Tribe & their Allies Commander: Major General Arthur St. Clair. Omissions? Kentucky frontiersmen reacted to this threat by initiating raiding parties on native villages as early as 1788, and Indian warfare flared up the following year. It might have been the day Cincinnati died. St. Clair met Phoebe Bayard, a member of one of the most prominent families in Boston, and they were married in 1760. [3] St. Clair was promoted to major general in February 1777. He also sought to end Native American claims to Ohio land and clear the way for white settlement. After the war, he served as President of the Continental Congress, which during his term passed the Northwest Ordinance. Arthur St. Clair ({OldStyleDateDY|March 23,|1737|1736}– August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. In January 1776, he accepted a commission in the Continental Army as a colonel of the 3rd Pennsylvania Regiment. The three-star St Clair Hotel in Sinclair St, Kopper, Kevin Patrick. "Arthur St. Clair and the Struggle For Power in the Old Northwest, 1763–1803" (Dissertation. He was then made governor of the Northwest Territory in 1788, and then the portion that would become Ohio in 1800. Other articles where Arthur St. Clair is discussed: Battle of Fallen Timbers: Context: Arthur St. Clair. He served under General Jeffery Amherst at the capture of Louisburg, Nova Scotia on July 26, 1758. President George Washington demanded that St. Clair resign from the army. He named Cincinnati, Ohio, after the Society of the Cincinnati, and it was there that he established his home. It has been accepted for inclusion in Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Loyola eCommons. The Battle of the Wabash, also known as St. Clair’s Defeat, named after the expedition’s leader, Major General Arthur St. Clair, occurred on 4 November 1791, and was one of the first tests of the fledgling U.S. Army of the Early Republic. The Miami, Shawnee, and Delaware tribes ended up in what are now the states of Ohio and Indiana, but was in th… Sep 24 Arthur St. Clair's Defeat - Governing the Northwest Indian War. It would be the largest defeat of American soldiers in the history of the army against Native American forces. Saint Clair’s Defeat, (November 4, 1791), one of the worst defeats ever suffered by U.S. forces in Indian warfare, precipitated by British-Indian confrontation with settlers and militia in the Northwest Territory following the American Revolution. He first saw service in the later days of the Quebec invasion, where he saw action in the Battle of Trois-Rivières. By: Stanley L. Klos. Eventually, these tribes would hand the country a military defeat on a scale that would be seen again until the Civil War. ", William O. Odo, "Destined for Defeat: an Analysis of the St. Clair Expedition of 1791. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He withdrew his forces and played no further part in the campaign. In April 1777, St. Clair was sent to defend Fort Ticonderoga. Arthur St. Clair (1734-1818) was governor of the Northwest Territory and administrator of Indian affairs for the western territories from 1787 to 1802. There is much debate over President St. Clair’s Lineage and even his year of birth. Kent State University, 2005), This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 22:04. 1736]– August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. The first Ohio Constitution provided for a weak governor and a strong legislature, in part as a reaction to St. Clair's method of governance. Arthur St. Clair attained the rank of major general during the American Revolution. The U.S. Army faced the Western Confederacy of Native Americans, as part of the Northwest Indian War. Little is known of his early life. Chaos ruled the day in early 1787 with Shays's Rebellion in full force and the states refusing to settle land disputes or contribute to the now six-year-old federal government. I wanted to make that clear straight away, as the latter half of this story discusses several mistakes he made which temporarily set back the western half of the United States. The wounded were many, including St. Clair and Capt. Although an investigation exonerated him, St. Clair resigned his army commission in March 1792 at the request of President Washington, but he continued to serve as Governor of the Northwest Territory.[6][7][8]. Only a twist of fate saved Cincinnati from a massacre in the days following November 4, 1791. Regular Army (United States)-Wikipedia Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Corrections? 1736] – August 31, 1818) was a Scottish-American soldier and politician. 1736]– August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. [9] He thus played no part in the organizing of the state of Ohio in 1803. St. Clair was a member of the Pennsylvania Council of Censors in 1783, and was elected a delegate to the Confederation Congress, serving from November 2, 1785, until November 28, 1787. General St. Clair's forces than lost 600 man. His remains are buried under a Masonic monument in St. Clair Park in downtown Greensburg. However, he was opposed by Ohio Democratic-Republicans for what were perceived as his partisanship, high-handedness, and arrogance in office. Source: Fairfax Downed, Indian Wars of the U.S. Army 1776-1865 (1963), pa. 54-59. [12] His wife Phoebe died shortly after and is buried beside him. St. Clair, therefore, could only aid General Sullivan in the retreat as second in command under General Thompson. I'm taking a look into Native American battles that you may not have heard about. Stories. The Defeat of Major General Arthur St. Clair, November 4, 1791: A Study of the Nation's Response, 1791-1793 William Patrick Walsh Loyola University Chicago This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Theses and Dissertations at Loyola eCommons. On February 2, 1787, the delegates finally gathered into a quorum and elected St. Clair to a one-year term as President of the Continental Congress. Born in Scotland, he served in the British Army during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania, where he held local office. More than 600 soldiers and scores of women and children were killed in the battle, which has since borne the name "St. Clair's Defeat", also known as the "Battle of the Wabash", the "Columbia Massacre," or the "Battle of a Thousand Slain". Politically out-of-step with the Jefferson administration, he was replaced as governor in 1802. During his military service, St. Clair was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1780.[5]. In 1778 he was court-martialed for the loss of Ticonderoga. St. Clair was at Yorktown when Lord Cornwallis surrendered his army. During the American Revolutionary War, he rose to the rank of major general in the Continental Army, but lost his command after a controversial retreat from Fort Ticonderoga. In 1770, St. Clair became a justice of the court, of quarter sessions and of common pleas, a member of the proprietary council, a justice, recorder, and clerk of the orphans' court, and prothonotary of Bedford and Westmoreland counties. Confederation warriors silently infiltrated the sleeping camp and mounted a surprise attack the next morning, killing more than 600 militiamen. Miss Bayard's mother's maiden name was Bowdoin and she was the sister of James Bowdoin, colonial governor of Massachusetts. The 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War (a war in which American Indian tribes were overwhelmingly allied with the British and were treated as defeated powers, following the American victory over the British), recognized United States sovereignty of all the land east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes. An American Civil War steamer was named USS St. Clair. He was the largest landowner in Western Pennsylvania. It would be the largest defeat of American soldiers in the history of the army against Native American forces. Arthur St. Clair died in poverty in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, on August 31, 1818, at the age of 81. He had been at Washington’s side through most of the Revolution and crossed the Delaware with the future first president. In March 1791, St. Clair succeeded Harmar as commander of the United States Army and was commissioned as a major general. The American Indians had soundly defeated St. Clair's army. As Governor, he formulated Maxwell's Code (named after its printer, William Maxwell), the first written laws of the territory. The first punitive expedition, led by General Josiah Harmar in 1790, was ambushed. Major General Arthur St. Clair (Library of Congress) St. Clair did so on April 7, 1792, but remained governor of the Northwest Territory. The little river town was not quite three years old and was home to only 100 or so settlers. The tide was reversed three years later, however, at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. https://www.britannica.com/event/Saint-Clairs-Defeat, Ohio History Society - St. Clair's Defeat. Arthur St. Clair 9th President of the United States in Congress Assembled February 2, 1787 to October 29, 1787 Revolutionary War Major General. Indian morale was temporarily strengthened by St. Clair’s Defeat, and white settlement of Ohio was retarded while frontiersmen clung to the protection of nearby U.S. forts. It occurred on November 4th, 1791. A portion of the Hermitage, St. Clair's home in Oak Grove, Pennsylvania (north of Ligonier), was later moved to Ligonier, Pennsylvania, where it is now preserved, along with St. Clair artifacts and memorabilia at the Fort Ligonier Museum. Rather than settling the Native Americans' claims, the treaty provoked them to further resistance in what is also sometimes known as the "Northwest Indian War" (or "Little Turtle's War"). Autumn of 1791 - near present day Fort Recovery, Ohio . In retirement St. Clair lived with his daughter, Louisa St. Clair Robb, and her family on the ridge between Ligonier and Greensburg. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Instead, St. Clair was soundly defeated by the Indians in what has been called the bloodiest battle of pioneer American history. Arthur St Clair, 1772 Manuscript court order for men to lay off the rout of a road. Whether that would have actually happened is irrelevant because the Americans won and the British allied tribes were forced to move farther west. Arthur St. Clair (March 23, 1737 [O.S. Time was running out for the Confederation Congress, however; during St. Clair's presidency, the Philadelphia Convention was drafting a new United States Constitution, which would abolish the old Congress. In 1757, St. Clair purchased a commission in the British Army, Royal American Regiment, and came to America with Admiral Edward Boscawen's fleet for the French and Indian War. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Iroquois, any member of the North American Indian tribes speaking a language of the Iroquoian family—notably the Cayuga, Cherokee, Huron, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora. Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair led the U.S. Army on a punitive expedition against Northwest Territory tribes in 1791—few of his troops would survive the campaign Three years after St. Clair’s Defeat, Maj. Gen. “Mad Anthony” Wayne decisively defeated the same tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Major General Arthur St. Clair From Bob Stevens we find web pages about Major General Arthur St Clair, who was a friend of George Washington, a general in the United States Army, president of Congress, and governor of the Northwest Territories.He came from Thurso in Caithness, Scotland.. We also have a legend and much other information about his daughter, Louisa, some information about … In October 1791 as an advance post for his campaign, Fort Jefferson (Ohio) was built under the direction of General Arthur St. Clair. One month later, near modern-day Fort Recovery, his force advanced to the location of Native American settlements near the headwaters of the Wabash River, but on November 4 they were routed in battle by a tribal confederation led by Miami Chief Little Turtle and Shawnee chief Blue Jacket. Jason Mandresh. His parents, unknown to early biographers, were probably William Sinclair, a merchant, and Elizabeth Balfour. Arthur St. Clair (March 23, 1737[1] [O.S. Under the command of General St. Clair, more than 900 American soldiers were killed and almost 300 wounded. He was appointed a brigadier general in August 1776, and was sent by Gen. George Washington to help organize the New Jersey militia. He had been assigned to Fort Washington along the north shore of the Ohio River—what one day would become the city of Cincinnati, Ohio—and ordered to raise and train an army of 3,000 men, made up of both regulars and militia. [1] He reportedly attended the University of Edinburgh before being apprenticed to the renowned physician William Hunter.[1]. This led President Thomas Jefferson to remove him from office as territorial governor. Arthur St. Clair (March 23, 1737 [1] [O.S. By the mid-1770s, St. Clair considered himself more of an American than a British subject. During the American Revolutionary War, he rose to the rank of major general in the Continental Army, but lost his command after a controversial retreat. Places named in honor of Arthur St. Clair include: For the murdered community leader from Brooksville, Florida, see, "President of the United States in Congress Assembled", Leroy V. Eid, "American Indian Military Leadership: St. Clair's 1791 Defeat. They were aided by British collaborators Alexander McKee and Simon Girty. Lodge #10 in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1791. The high point of Arthur St. Clair's long military career, which began when he was a young British officer in the French and Indian War, ... Washington's army followed St. Clair's plan and defeated the British at Princeton the following morning. Born in Thurso, Scotland, he served in the British Army during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania, where he held local office. Leading the American army in 1791 was Major General Arthur St. Clair, a veteran of the American Revolution. Early biographers estimated his year of birth as 1734,[2] but subsequent historians uncovered a birth date of March 23, 1736, which in the modern calendar system means that he was born in 1737. St. Clair issued an order for the arrest of the officer leading the Virginia troops. [10] St. Clair had been a petitioner for a Charter for Nova Caesarea Under the command of General St. Clair, 900 American soldiers were killed and 350 wounded. In 1789, he succeeded in getting certain Native Americans to sign the Treaty of Fort Harmar, but many native leaders had not been invited to participate in the negotiations, or had refused to do so. Updates? He was again given that rank in the American army in 1791, only to retire in 1792 after his troops were defeated by Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory. Located in present-day Darke County in far western Ohio, the fort was built of wood and intended primarily as a supply depot; accordingly, it was originally named Fort Deposit. ... Command on the frontier was given to Arthur St. Clair, an experienced Scottish-born frontier fighter going back to the French and Indian War. Saint Clair’s Defeat, (November 4, 1791), one of the worst defeats ever suffered by U.S. forces in Indian warfare, precipitated by British-Indian confrontation with settlers and militia in the Northwest Territory following the American Revolution. The United States military realised it needed a well-trained standing army following St. Clair's Defeat on November 4, 1791, when a force led by General Arthur St. Clair was almost entirely wiped out by the Western Confederacy near Fort Recovery, Ohio. St. Clair was born in Thurso, Caithness, Scotland. He took part in George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River on the night of December 25–26, 1776, before the Battle of Trenton on the morning of December 26. He personally led a punitive expedition involving two Regular Army regiments and some militia. In 1774, the colony of Virginia took claim of the area around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and some residents of Western Pennsylvania took up arms to eject them. St. Clair did so on April 7, 1792, but remained governor of the Northwest Territory. It remains the greatest defeat of a US Army by Native Americans in history, with about 623 American soldiers killed in action and about 50 Native Americans killed. It was called the Battle of the Wabash but also known as St. Clair’s Defeat after Major General Arthur St. Clair, the man who made it happen. His small garrison could not resist British General John Burgoyne's larger force in the Saratoga campaign. He still saw action, however, as an aide-de-camp to General Washington, who retained a high opinion of him. St. Clair was forced to retreat at the Siege of Fort Ticonderoga on July 5, 1777. He still faced problems with the American Indians. Lord Dunmore's War eventually settled the boundary dispute. Little Turtle defeated General Arthur St. Clair in 1791 during the Northwest Indian War, also called Little Turtle's war. [11] This Lodge exists today, as Nova Caesarea Harmony #2. ", George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, National Museum of the United States Army, "Buried in Greensburg, Arthur St. Clair a forgotten Revolutionary", "General Arthur St. Clair, Soldier, Surveyor, Territorial Governor, and Freemason", "About Our Lodge – Nova Caesarea Harmony #2", Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness, Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, African Americans in the Revolutionary War, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arthur_St._Clair&oldid=992748017, Adjutants general of the United States Army, Continental Army officers from Pennsylvania, Continental Army personnel who were court-martialed, Continental Congressmen from Pennsylvania, People from Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, American people of the Northwest Indian War, British military personnel of the French and Indian War, British emigrants to the Thirteen Colonies, Commanding Generals of the United States Army, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with USCongress identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, St. Clair Street in Indianapolis, Indiana. On April 16, 1762, he resigned his commission, and, in 1764, he settled in Ligonier Valley, Pennsylvania, where he purchased land and erected mills. 1736] – August 31, 1818) was an American soldier and politician. It was "the most decisive defeat in the history of the American military" and its largest defeat ever by Native Americans. Under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which created the Northwest Territory, General St. Clair was appointed governor of what is now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, along with parts of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which created the Northwest Territory, General St. Clair was appointed governor of what is now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, along with parts of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Mutual hostilities led to a campaign by General Josiah Harmar, whose 1,500 militiamen were defeated by the Native Americans in October 1790. St. Clair's Campaign of 1791: A Defeat in the Wilderness That Helped Forge Today's U.S. Army. On April 17, 1759, he received a lieutenant's commission and was assigned under the command of General James Wolfe, under whom he served at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham which resulted in the capture of Quebec City. We mostly know it as St. Clair’s Defeat. Signature is a secretarial Arthur St. Clair on a 14” by 12” document folded into two leaves, text only on pages 1 & 4. [4] The court exonerated him and he returned to duty,[4] although he was no longer given any battlefield commands. President George Washington demanded that St. Clair resign from the army. Arthur St. Clair (March 23, 1737 [O.S. By Thomas E. Buffenbarger, U. S. Army Heritage … The American Indians had soundly defeated St. Clair's army. The location was in the Old Northwest Territory, which included today’s Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and parts of Minnesota. Little Turtle, or Michikinikwa (1747 - 1812) was a leader of Miami people and one of the most famous Native American military leader of the time. The U.S. casualty rate was… Many of the eastern Indian tribes supported the British during the American Revolution because they were told the British would stop or severely limit white migration and settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and south of the Great Lakes. In hopes of reclaiming lost hunting grounds with British support, a Northwest Indian Confederation was gradually molded between 1785 and 1787, consisting mainly of Shawnee, Delaware, Ottawa, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Miami, and Potawatomi. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. This is a laid, watermarked, and rag-content 1772 document with some separation at folds, small holes at intersection of folds and along folds, and a stain. The peoples who spoke Iroquoian languages occupied a continuous territory around Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Erie…. This force advanced to the location of Indian settlements on the Wabash River, but on November 4 they were routed in battle by a tribal confederation led by Miami Chief Michikinikwa. He named Cincinnati, Ohio, after the Society of the Cincinnati, and it was there that he established his home. Robert Benham. In 1791 a second force of 3,000 men under General Arthur St. Clair carelessly pitched camp south of the Maumee River with few guards the night of November 3. Congress enacted its most important piece of legislation, the Northwest Ordinance, during St. Clair's tenure as president. Born in Scotland, he served in the British Army during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania, where he held local office. In response to the success at Princeton, Washington supported St. Clair throughout the rest of the war even when he made serious mistakes. 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